President of Ukraine

Agreement on security cooperation between Ukraine and France

16 February 2024 - 22:15

Ukraine and France, hereinafter referred to individually and respectively as the "Ukrainian Participant" and the "French Participant" and jointly as the "Participants",

Reaffirming their solidarity in the face of the armed aggression by the Russian Federation against Ukraine in violation of international law, the Charter of the United Nations, the Helsinki Final Act and the Charter of Paris;

Reaffirming Ukraine's inherent right of self-defence, in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations;

Recognising that Russia's illegal and unprovoked large-scale invasion of Ukraine is a threat to international peace and security and a flagrant violation of international law, including the United Nations Charter;

Reaffirming their unwavering commitment to the strategic objective of a free, independent, democratic and sovereign Ukraine, within its internationally recognised borders as of 1991, capable of defending itself and deterring any future aggression;

Recognising the importance of the fundamental principles for a just and lasting peace laid out in Ukraine's Peace Formula, in line with international law;

Reaffirming their deep commitment to democratic principles, the rule of law, good governance, respect for fundamental freedoms and human rights;

Reaffirming the objective of Ukrainian accession to the European Union and the fact that the security of Ukraine is an integral part of European security and the Euro-Atlantic region;

Recalling the historic decisions of the European Council of 23 June 2022 and 14 December 2023 to grant Ukraine the candidate status and open accession negotiations with Ukraine, underlining that enlargement is a geo-strategic investment in peace, security, stability and prosperity;

Considering the Joint Declaration of Support for Ukraine adopted in Vilnius on 12 July 2023 by the G7 Leaders that 25 countries have since endorsed as of February 16 2024;

Have jointly determined to strengthen their bilateral long-term security cooperation by pursuing the measures set out in this Agreement:


I. Introduction

The Participants confirm that they support the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognised borders as of 1991. They wish to reaffirm the sovereign right of each State to freely choose its security arrangements.

With this Agreement, Ukraine and France will deepen their cooperation and partnership, which are based on their common interests in the defence of international law and order, peace, and the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

The Participants reaffirm that Ukraine's security is integral to Euro-Atlantic and global security. France confirms that Ukraine's future membership of NATO would make an effective contribution to peace and stability in Europe. The Participants will coordinate and strengthen joint efforts to support Ukraine's accession to NATO.

The main components of the long-term security commitments provided to Ukraine by France in this Agreement are as follows:

  • provision of comprehensive assistance to Ukraine for the protection and the restoration of its territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders, as well as economic recovery and reconstruction;
  • prevention and active deterrence of, and counter-measures against, a new aggression by the Russian Federation;
  • support for Ukraine's integration into European and Euro-Atlantic institutions, including by supporting Ukraine's accession to the EU and interoperability with NATO.


II. Cooperation in the security field

1. General cooperation in strengthening Ukraine's security

The French Participant will provide military and civil assistance to enable Ukraine to defend its sovereignty, its independence and its territorial integrity in the face of the aggression by the Russian Federation, bilaterally through agreements and through the institutions and organisations to which it is a party.

The French Participant will contribute to building the military capabilities, the resilience and the economic stability of Ukraine, so as to discourage any future aggression.

In order to more effectively ensure the realisation of this cooperation, the Ukrainian Participant will continuously and effectively maintain and develop its ability to resist an armed attack, with the assistance of the French Participant.


2. Cooperation in strategic communication and in the fight against foreign interference and manipulation of information

The Participants recognise that the Russian Federation continues to manipulate information in support of its war on Ukraine and will seek to continue to mutually support each other's efforts to counter Russian digital interference and manipulation of information as well as propaganda globally.

The French Participant will assist Ukraine in joining collective instruments for countering foreign interference and manipulation of information.

The Participants will collaborate to improve Ukraine's capabilities to counter foreign interference and manipulation of information, primarily Russian propaganda and disinformation campaigns, exchange experience and promote the development of joint educational and training programmes for information integrity professionals.


3. Cooperation in the sphere of cyber security

The Participants will work together to enable Ukraine to detect, deter and disrupt any cyber aggression, cyber espionage, including through greater cyber resilience and critical infrastructure protection from cyber attacks, while supporting the modernisation and reform of Ukraine's security architecture, and through the provision of international technical assistance to Ukraine.

The Participants will work together to raise the cost of the irresponsible use of cyber capabilities by the Russian Federation and other hostile state and non-state actors against the Participants. They will also increase their operational cooperation in the fight against cybercrime.

The Ukrainian Participants will work towards deepening Ukraine's cooperation with EU and NATO structures on cybersecurity.


4. Protection of critical infrastructure

The French Participant will contribute to the development of Ukraine's critical infrastructure protection capabilities, including by military means, prioritising, but not limited to, modern air defence capabilities.

The Participants will explore joint educational and training programmes for critical infrastructure protection specialists.

The Participants will strengthen their cooperation in the field of improved resilience and preparedness of both government and civil entities, including through information sharing, exchanges on best practices and experience feedback. The Participants will also deepen their cooperation on assessing vulnerabilities of vital supply chains, retro-engineering of critical goods and services, the constitution of strategic stockpiles, as well as the corresponding logistic issues.

The French Participant will work with Ukraine to identify sources of funding to develop the protection and resilience of critical infrastructure, including through the grant facility for reconstruction and restoration of critical infrastructure set up by the French Participant for Ukraine.


5. Intelligence and Counterintelligence Cooperation

The Participants will continue and will strive to deepen their cooperation in the field of intelligence and counterintelligence in accordance with the framework based on bilateral agreements, without prejudice to their national interests and in compliance with the legislation of each Participant.


6. Cooperation in the sphere of combating serious and organised crime

The Participants will take actions to counteract the activities of SOC, in particular individuals and groups that are trying to infiltrate across Ukrainian society, have criminal influence in certain regions, including the temporarily occupied ones, and are actively used as a tool of hybrid warfare to counteract the processes of recovery and reconciliation in Ukraine.

In order to counter the activities of SOC, the Participants will take measures to:

  • conduct joint operations to detect and suppress SOC;
  • analyse the criminal situation in the countries and identify the main risks from SOC;
  • identify and trace the proceeds and instrumentalities of SOC in view of facilitating seizure and, where appropriate, confiscation;
  • create joint working groups and joint investigation teams of prosecutors and other parties, based on identified needs;
  • facilitate the provision of training and sharing of best practice.

The above measures are not exhaustive, and the Participants may pursue other forms of cooperation to achieve their goals in combating SOC.


ІІІ. Cooperation in the event of future armed attack

Any future Russian invasion would violate the UN Charter and fundamental principles of international law, and would grievously undermine Euro-Atlantic security, including that of France.

In the event of future Russian armed attack against Ukraine, at the request of either of the Participants, the Participants will consult within 24 hours to determine measures needed to counter or deter the aggression.

In those circumstances, and acting in accordance with its legal and constitutional requirements, the French Participant would provide Ukraine with swift and sustained security assistance, modern military equipment across all domains as necessary, and economic assistance; impose economic and other costs on Russia; and consult with Ukraine on its needs as it exercises its right to self-defence enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter.

In order to ensure the widest and most effective collective response to any future armed attack, the Participants may amend these provisions in order to align with any mechanism that Ukraine may subsequently agree with its other international partners, including the participants in the Joint Declaration of 12 July 2023.


IV. Cooperation in the military and defence industry

7. Defence and military cooperation

The Participants will work together and with other partners of Ukraine to ensure that the Ukrainian defence and security forces are able to fully restore Ukraine's territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders as of 1991, as well as to increase Ukraine's resilience so that it is sufficient to deter and defend against future attacks. This will include, but is not limited to, working together so that Ukraine's military and non-military security institutions are able to perform effectively to European and Euro-Atlantic standards and are fully accountable to the Ukrainian people, Parliament and Government.

The Participants will work together on ensuring a sustainable force capable of defending Ukraine now and deterring Russian aggression in the future, through the continued provision of security assistance and modern military equipment, across the land, air, sea, space and cyber domains — prioritising, but not limited to: air defence, artillery, long-range firepower, armoured vehicles, air force capabilities and other key capabilities.

The French Participant will, alongside other international partners, help Ukraine to enhance its ability to deter and defend against external aggressors by developing modern Future Defence Forces that are increasingly interoperable with NATO and contribute to NATO forces. This includes the development of a modern defence sector in Ukraine, and a pathway to a future in NATO.

The French Participant will assist Ukraine with preservation of its qualitative defence and military capabilities amid rapid, uncertain and challenging regional political and security transformation.

In the military field, without prejudice to their position in the context of Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine, the Participants propose to establish cooperation enabling the Ukrainian Participant to develop comprehensive military capabilities in the following fields, which are not exhaustive:

  1. Military equipment, including through industrial cooperation, and particularly in the fields of artillery and air defence, but also in the fields of armoured vehicles, maritime security, military medical support, information technologies and mine clearance;
  2. Training of the Ukrainian defence and security forces, in a national capacity and in the European framework, including train-the-trainers programme, specialised training in fields such as artillery, air defence, armoured vehicles, air forces and maritime security, new technologies and mine clearance;
  3. Initial support and support for the launch of maintenance by manufacturers, on the ground where necessary;
  4. Structural support for reform of the defence sector;
  5. Support for cyber defence and resilience initiatives, including to address hybrid threats;
  6. Assistance to the Ukrainian system of medical support for the treatment and rehabilitation of Ukrainian servicepersons;
  7. Support to the development of the Ukrainian defence and security forces including, but not limited to: future force design, a move towards NATO concepts and operating procedures, command and staff training, combined exercises, and enhanced compatibility and interoperability with NATO Allies;
  8. Support for border protection and defence, its engineering and fortification, surveillance, monitoring of enemy troop movements, post-war reconstruction of border infrastructure, demining and disposal of explosive ordnance;

The French Participant will support plans and governance structures for Capability Coalitions in the framework of the Ukraine Defence Contact Group, by playing a leading role in the coalitions on Artillery and Air Defence, and by participating in the coalitions on Air Force and Maritime Security, and other coalitions, to which the French Participant may contribute, both to deliver the future force and to bring more coherence to the provision of capability in the current war.

The bilateral fund for security and defence assistance to Ukraine, in good coordination with the European Peace Facility, will help support these cooperation efforts in the relevant fields.


France provided Ukraine with a total of €1.7 billion in military aid in 2022 and of €2.1 billion in 2023. In 2024, France will provide up to 3 billion euros in additional support.

The Participants will seek to ensure that Ukraine's military capabilities are at such a level that, in the event of external military aggression against France, Ukraine is able to provide effective military assistance. The terms, format and scope of such assistance will be determined by the Participants.

The French Participant will continue its support to Ukraine for the ten-year duration of this Agreement.


8. Defence industry cooperation

The Participants will strive to cooperate in the field of the defence and security industry, including with the objective of promoting cooperation between their defence industries and strengthening standardisation and interoperability of their defence equipment. The Participants will seek, as far as possible, to develop an industrial partnership involving French and Ukrainian defence businesses and, as far as possible, free of restrictions from third parties.

The French Participant will contribute to the development of Ukraine's defence industrial base, including through French investments, the localisation of production in Ukraine as well as joint production for manufacturing of priority weapons and ammunition. The Participants will facilitate the creation of joint ventures, including for maintenance and repair of weapons and military equipment.

The French Participant will work with Ukraine to identify funding sources required to enable the development of Ukraine's defence industrial base and to encourage investments into new capacities.

The Participants will work together to address existing defence materials supply chain bottlenecks impeding developing capacity and capability of both France and Ukraine for manufacturing of priority weapons and ammunition. To that purpose, the French Participant will work with its Defence industry and Ukraine to strengthen the supply chain for critical materials required for manufacturing of ammunition and other priority weapons, in particular large calibre ammunition.

The Participants will work together to strengthen protection of the transferred technologies and intellectual property rights.

The Participants will promote the exchange of information on their respective defence related research and development efforts in order to implement joint projects and programs to develop new armament and equipment. With this objective, the dialogue between the Ministry of Armed Forces of France and the Ministry of Strategic Industries of Ukraine will be strengthened. The dialogue between the Direction Générale de l'Armement and the Defence Procurement Agency will also be enhanced, in line with the Letter of Intent signed between the two organisations during the visit of France's Minister of Armed Forces in Kyiv in September 2023.

The French Participant will support Ukraine's efforts to integrate its defence industry into NATO and EU defence and security frameworks.


V. Cooperation in the civil field

9. Humanitarian assistance

The French Participant will continue its humanitarian assistance to fulfil the immediate needs of the Ukrainian population in the face of the armed aggression by the Russian Federation. It will also contribute, alongside its partners, to the economic recovery, reconstruction and modernisation of Ukraine, in order to restore and strengthen its economic stability, reduce its dependencies and vulnerabilities and build a more solid, innovative, sustainable and resilient economic and industrial base, particularly in the context of negotiations for the accession of Ukraine to the European Union.

The French Participant will seek to continue over time the support underway for Ukraine, including in the transport, energy, agriculture, water, humanitarian mine clearance, critical infrastructure, digital, housing and health sectors.

The French Participant will use the economic and financial instruments at its disposal, in cooperation with all relevant international organisations and its partners.


10. Support to Ukraine's reform agenda

The French Participant welcomes the decision to open accession negotiations with Ukraine and commends the substantial progress that Ukraine has made towards meeting the objectives underpinning the accession process.

The Ukrainian Participant will strive to continue its ambitious reform path, particularly in the framework of its European Union accession process, to meet the obligations required for EU membership. The Ukrainian Participant will continue its systemic reforms in the defence and security sectors, including as regards civil control of the armed forces and the efficiency and transparency of the defence institutions and defence industry of Ukraine. It will strive to deepen the key reforms in the fields of justice and rule of law, the fight against corruption and money laundering, the modernisation of its state apparatus, decentralisation, the protection of the rights of persons belonging to minorities, transparency and good governance in both the economic sector and the defence and security sector. The implementation of these reforms will contribute to strengthening democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the modernisation and resilience of the Ukrainian economy.

The French Participant reaffirms its intention to fully support the objective of Ukraine's accession to the European Union. With this in mind, the French Participant will provide technical support for the implementation of the necessary reforms, particularly as regards the rule of law, justice sector reform, the fight against corruption, the modernisation of the state apparatus, decentralisation, transparency and civil control in the defence sector, including demining. To this end, the French Participant will provide for the deployment of technical experts embedded in the Ukrainian administration.


11. Ukraine's recovery and reconstruction

The French Participant will strive to continue fostering the involvement of private companies, local government bodies and non-governmental organisations in the reconstruction process, following on from the actions launched at the Conference for Ukraine's Resilience and Reconstruction that was organised in Paris on 13 December 2022.

The Participants recognise the need to unite efforts aimed at protecting the population and territories of Ukraine from the negative consequences caused by mines and undetonated explosive ordnance.

To this end, the French Participant will make use of the appropriate bilateral tools, in good coordination and optimising as far as possible the leverage effect with European and private sector funds, including in the framework of the European Union's Ukraine Facility which aims at preparing Ukraine for future membership of the Union by supporting its accession process.

The Ukrainian Participant will continue the implementation of all the reforms required in the framework of its European Union accession process and the Ukraine Plan.

The French Participant will support Ukraine to plan for the reintegration of temporarily occupied territories, to contribute to the vital stabilisation and socioeconomic renewal, particularly in liberated and frontline areas and areas bordering Russia, to promote an inclusive social recovery and to meet the needs of the most vulnerable, including through work to support women, social protection systems and veterans.


12. Compensation for losses, injuries and damages caused by Russian aggression

The Participants reaffirm the Russian Federation must pay for the long-term reconstruction of Ukraine. Consistent with France's legal system, Russian sovereign assets in France's jurisdiction remain immobilised until the Russian Federation has paid for damage it has caused to Ukraine. The French Participant, working with its partners, will continue to explore all lawful routes consistent with applicable contractual obligations and in accordance with EU and international law through which Russian assets could be used to support Ukraine.

As a priority, the Participants will continue to work together, along with G7 states and others, towards the establishment of a compensation mechanism to provide compensation for damage, loss or injury caused by Russia's aggression, as envisaged by the Statute of the Register of Damage Caused by the Aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine adopted by the Resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe CM/Res(2023)3. In this regard, the Participants will explore appropriate options for the financing of a compensation mechanism to provide prompt and adequate compensation to victims of aggression.


13. Sanctions

The Participants recognise the value of sanctions in restricting the Russian Federation's and other aggressor-states' access to the finance, goods, technology and services it is utilising in its aggression, in bearing down on Russia's revenue streams, and to deter future attacks. The Participants will continue to work to ensure that the costs to Russia of its aggression continue to rise, including through sanctions and export controls.

While the Russian Federation's aggression towards Ukraine continues, the French Participant will remain committed, in the European framework, to pursuing robust sanctions against sectors of the Russian economy and those in the Russian Federation and outside who are supporting or profiting from the war, or assisting in sanctions circumvention in third countries. The French Participant will also take determined action with partners to tackle all forms of sanctions circumvention as well as to reinforce its own domestic resilience against Russia-linked illicit finance and elites.

The Participants will provide each other with up-to-date appropriate information on the grounds for sanctions and other relevant information, in compliance with relevant obligations and national laws.


14. Accountability

The Participants reaffirm their commitment to holding the Russian Federation accountable for causing losses or damage to individuals and entities, as well as to the state of Ukraine, as a result of its internationally unlawful acts in Ukraine or against Ukraine, including its aggression in violation of the Charter of the United Nations.

The Participants reaffirm that there must be no impunity for war crimes and other atrocities and that the Russian Federation must bear the legal responsibility, including making reparation for any damage caused by such acts, which will also help deter future attacks and support Ukraine's recovery.

The Participants will seek to hold to account those responsible for war crimes and other international crimes, committed in or against Ukraine in the context of Russia's war of aggression, consistent with international law, including by supporting the work of the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine and the International Criminal Court to ensure allegations of war crimes are fully and fairly investigated by independent, effective and robust legal mechanisms.

The Participants will continue their engagement in the "Core group on options for the establishment of a tribunal on the crime of aggression against Ukraine".


VI. Implementation of cooperation

The Participants will implement this cooperation in accordance with their international and national obligations, as well as France's European commitments.

The Participants will, if necessary, designate authorised bodies for the development and implementation of bilateral agreements in accordance with the areas of cooperation specified in this Agreement.

The Participants will inform each other through diplomatic channels of the competent authorities responsible for implementing this Agreement.

These authorities will conduct consultations in order to discuss, make the necessary decisions and take the required actions within the framework of this Agreement.

The authorised bodies of the Participants can conclude executive and technical agreements on specific areas of cooperation within the framework of the implementation of this agreement.


VII. Timeframe and other provisions

This Agreement is valid for ten years from the date of its signature.

In accordance with the G7 Joint Declaration of 12 July 2023, the Participants intend this Agreement to remain in effect as Ukraine pursues its path to future membership in the Euro-Atlantic community.

In the event that Ukraine becomes a member of NATO before the end of this Agreement, the Participants will decide on its future status.

This Agreement may be terminated by either Participant by giving written notice of its intention to terminate the Agreement to the other Participant. This Agreement shall be terminated six months from the date of receipt of such notice.

This Agreement may be amended and supplemented by mutual agreement of the Participants, which shall be made in writing.

This Agreement will come into effect immediately upon signature.

Signed in Paris on 16 February 2024, in duplicate, in the French and Ukrainian languages.


For Ukraine: President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy

For France: President of the French Republic Emmanuel Macron