President of Ukraine

Agreement on Security Cooperation and Long-Term Support between Ukraine and Iceland

31 May 2024 - 13:08


Ukraine and the Government of Iceland (hereinafter ‘the Participants’, or ‘Ukraine’ and ‘Iceland’) reiterate their condemnation of Russia’s ongoing war of aggression against Ukraine, a clear violation of international law, including the United Nations Charter.

Russia’s full-scale war of aggression against Ukraine has caused immense destruction and civilian casualties with monumental consequences for Ukraine, the whole of Europe and the international community. The return of war to the European continent is a stark reminder of Russia’s expansionist and aggressive behaviour in direct violation of international law and the European security order.

Iceland reiterates its unwavering support for Ukraine’s independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders as of 1991, including the territorial sea.

Iceland conveys deep recognition of the perseverance and spirit of the Ukrainian people as they continue their extraordinary determination in exercising their inherent right to self-defence as enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter. Ukraine’s self-defence against Russia’s aggression is also a fight for democratic values and European security – and therefore is vital also to Icelandic interests and Iceland’s security.

Iceland, together with the Nordic countries, immediately supported the Joint Declaration of Support for Ukraine of 12 July 2023 (hereinafter the ‘G7 Declaration’), adopted by the Group of Seven (G7) and the EU on the margins of the NATO Summit in Vilnius. At the second Ukrainian-Nordic Summit in Oslo on 13 December 2023 the leaders of the Nordic countries, including Iceland, reiterated their support for the G7 Declaration and unwavering support for Ukraine. They confirmed their continued commitment to provide extensive military, economic and humanitarian support, individually and collectively as Nordics, as well as in the framework of other international formats and platforms. They agreed to start bilateral negotiations with Ukraine on security commitments to be formalised in close coordination with G7 Allies and partners. Iceland hereby formalises its long-term bilateral security commitments to Ukraine.

As stated on multiple occasions, the Nordic countries stand united in bolstering Ukraine’s resilience and capacity to defend itself and remain ready to support Ukraine for as long as it takes to restore its territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders. The Nordics are committed to maintain support for Ukraine as it defends its sovereignty and territorial integrity, rebuilds its economy, protects its citizens, and advances its reform agenda, as it pursues its integration into the Euro-Atlantic community.

Recalling the long-standing diplomatic relations and friendship since Ukraine regained its independence in 1991, the Participants decide to deepen their cooperation and partnership by pursuing the long-term bilateral security commitments set forth in this Agreement, which are based on common interests in the defence of international peace and the protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms.


I. Comprehensive and long-term support to Ukraine


1. With this Agreement, Ukraine and Iceland have decided to deepen their cooperation and partnership, which is based on their common interest in defence of international law and order, and the protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms.


2. Iceland’s commitment to the security and long-term support to Ukraine is in line with Iceland’s parliamentary resolution on support to Ukraine agreed by Althingi – the Parliament of Iceland – on 29 April 2024 (hereafter ‘the Parliamentary Resolution’). Furthermore, the commitments seek to complement contributions from the other participants of the G7 Declaration, including the EU and the Nordic countries. Iceland’s security commitments to Ukraine are coordinated with Allies and partners.


3. Iceland stands ready to consult with Ukraine on a regular basis on strategic matters and to align and coordinate support delivered with the purpose of bolstering Ukraine’s defensive fight against Russian aggression. Furthermore, Iceland would welcome inter alia regular Nordic-Ukraine strategic dialogue on the strengthening of Ukraine’s defence, resilience, and reform path.


4. Iceland’s commitments set forth in this Agreement reflect a strategic choice and involve comprehensive support to Ukraine’s inherent right of self-defence against Russia’s full-scale war of aggression, prevention of significant escalation and deterrence of future Russian aggression. Any extension of the security commitments will occur in dialogue between the Participants, and in coordination with Allies and partners.


5. Iceland will provide comprehensive and long-term economic, humanitarian, and defence-related support to Ukraine in line with the Parliamentary Resolution.


6. Iceland’s support will be based on Ukraine’s needs, including as called for in the Ukraine’s Peace Formula, and coordinated with other international efforts. As before, Iceland will strive to provide the most effective and flexible support for Ukraine as it defends itself, and on its course to future membership of the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).


7. In 2022 and 2023, the Government of Iceland provided Ukraine with approximately 2.9 billion ISK in economic and humanitarian support and 2.6 billion ISK in support of Ukraine’s defences. In the Parliamentary Resolution, Iceland has committed to a minimum of 4 billion ISK annually during the period 2024-2028, subject to Parliamentary appropriations each year. Total budget, distribution between military and civilian support, and specific allocations will be determined annually. In 2024, Iceland committed 2 million EUR to the Czech Initiative for ammunition purchase in support of Ukraine.


8. Iceland’s commitment to support Ukraine over the five-year period covered by the Parliamentary Resolution confirms to the people of Ukraine and the international community that Iceland stands with Ukraine for the long-term. Iceland will continue its multifaceted support to Ukraine for the ten-year duration of this Agreement. Iceland recalls that national budgetary provisions apply and require explicit authorisation from Parliament.


II. Political Cooperation


Just Peace


9. The Participants recognize that Ukraine and Europe as a whole will not be secure until there is just peace that respects Ukraine’s rights under international law, including the UN Charter.


10. Ukraine and Iceland will therefore work together bilaterally and in international fora for a just and lasting peace with broad global support, based on Ukraine’s Peace Formula, which Iceland welcomes. Iceland will continue its diplomatic efforts to promote Ukraine’s Peace Formula globally. Iceland will also participate in and support the implementation of Ukraine’s Peace Formula.


Enhanced diplomatic representation


11. While the Embassy of Iceland in Warsaw is accredited to Ukraine, Iceland will also enhance its diplomatic representation in Kyiv in order to foster deeper and more regular contact with government offices, parliament, civil society, and the private sector in Ukraine. This will provide comprehensive insights into Ukraine’s needs for support in the context of Russia’s aggression.


European and Euro-Atlantic integration


12. Ukraine commits to implement reforms as defined by the EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB) and NATO covering inter alia governance, transparency, anti-corruption and democratic control over the security and defence forces. Ukraine’s implementation of these reforms is essential for its Euro-Atlantic aspirations.


13. The Participants reaffirm that Ukraine is integral to Euro-Atlantic and global security. Iceland is dedicated to supporting Ukraine’s reform efforts on its path towards future NATO membership by, but not limited to, advancing practical and political cooperation through NATO’s Comprehensive Assistance Package, Ukraine’s adapted Annual National Programme and the newly established NATO-Ukraine Council. Iceland recalls that Ukraine belongs to the Euro-Atlantic family and will become a member of NATO.


14. The Participants reaffirm that Ukraine is part of the European family and has a future within European cooperative structures.




15. The Participants reaffirm their commitment to ensuring accountability for international crimes committed in and against Ukraine, including the crime of aggression. The Participants will continue their work, including in the Core Group, to establish a tribunal on the crime of aggression against Ukraine.


16. The Participants underline their firm dedication to bringing to justice those responsible for war crimes and other international crimes committed in connection with Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine, including making reparation for any damage caused by such acts, which will also help deter future attacks and support Ukraine's recovery. They concur on the need to ensure accountability for such crimes under international law committed by the Russian leadership and other Russian nationals and in particular by the members of the Russian armed forces on the territory of Ukraine through appropriate, fair and independent investigations and prosecution at the national or international level, and to ensure the indiscriminate enforcement of international humanitarian law with the view to prevent future crimes.


17. The Participants will continue to promote effective domestic investigation and prosecution of international crimes within Ukraine and will continue to support the work of the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine and the International Criminal Court. The Participants reaffirm that the Russian Federation is to be held accountable for causing losses or damage to individuals and entities, as well as to the state of Ukraine, because of its internationally wrongful acts in Ukraine or against Ukraine, including its aggression in violation of the UN Charter. Russian sovereign assets should remain immobilised until the Russian Federation has paid for the damage it has caused to Ukraine.


18. The Participants will continue to engage within the International Coalition for the Return of Ukrainian Children established on 2 February 2024 and pursue the goals set by its Framework Document; contribute to international efforts to bring those responsible for organising the illegal deportation and displacement of Ukrainian children to justice according to the norms of international law and decisions of international judicial institutions; and facilitate all necessary assistance to children and their families affected by the illegal deportation and forced displacement by the Russian Federation, with the aim of their return, reintegration, and the restoration of their well-being, health, and welfare, consistent with the best interest of the child.


Compensation for damage, loss or injury caused by Russian aggression


19. The Participants reaffirm that Russia must pay for the long-term reconstruction of Ukraine. Iceland, working with its partners, will continue to explore all lawful routes consistent with applicable contractual obligations and in accordance with international law through which Russian assets could be used to support Ukraine.


20. As a priority, the Participants will continue to work together along with like-minded partners towards the establishment of a compensation mechanism to provide compensation for damage, loss or injury caused by Russia’s aggression, as envisaged by the Statute of the Register of Damage Caused by the Aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine adopted by the Resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe CM/Res(2023)3 at the Council Summit in Reykjavik in May 2023. In this regard, the Participants will explore appropriate options for the financing of a compensation mechanism consistent with international law in order to provide prompt and adequate compensation to victims of aggression.




21. The Participants will continue working to ensure that the costs to Russia for its aggression continue to rise, including through sanctions and export controls. The Participants recognise the value of sanctions in restricting Russia’s access to the finance, goods, technology, and services it is utilising in its war of aggression, in bearing down on Russia's revenue streams, and in deterring future attacks, including measures to tackle circumvention of the measures in third countries.


22. Iceland will continue to align itself closely with the EU to uphold the pressure on Russia through robust international sanctions, which includes sanctions against sectors of the Russian economy and those in or outside the Russian Federation who are supporting or profiting from the war or assisting in sanctions circumvention in third countries, and to fight the evasion of sanctions as long as Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine continues and Ukraine’s territorial integrity is not restored. Iceland will cooperate with and support determined action by the EU to tackle all forms of sanctions circumvention.


23. Ukraine and Iceland will provide each other with up-to-date information on the grounds for sanctions and other relevant information, in compliance with relevant obligations.


ІІІ. Defence-related support


Comprehensive and long-term support to Ukraine’s defences, resilience, and deterrence


24. This Agreement on security commitments covers ongoing, scheduled, and future contributions to Ukraine’s defences, resilience, and future deterrence of Russian aggression.


25. Iceland will support efforts to improve the capability of the security and defence forces of Ukraine to defend itself against Russian aggression now as well as to deter further aggression in the future, and to enhance interoperability with NATO standards.


26. Iceland will work with Ukraine to enable the development of Ukraine’s defence industry, where possible. Iceland will support Ukraine’s defence industry integration into NATO’s security and defence frameworks.


27. Ukraine will ensure that Icelandic defence-related support is used exclusively for Ukraine’s self-defence and is to be used by the security and defence forces of Ukraine against military objectives in accordance with international law, including international humanitarian law. The Participants will cooperate to prevent the diversion and the illegal circulation of military material provided to Ukraine.


28. Iceland will continue its defence-related support in an agile and responsive manner. Iceland will provide Ukraine with defence-related support and keep enhancing training efforts to meet urgent needs on the battlefield. These efforts are essential to fully restore Ukraine’s territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders as of 1991.


Training programmes


29. Iceland will continue to provide training, including train-the-trainer programmes, along with other allies, to improve Ukraine’s capabilities in the field, along with supporting these efforts with donations of equipment. Current efforts include:

a) explosive ordnance disposal efforts in Ukraine by providing training, donations of equipment and support in developing and sustaining international demining standards;

b) training for Ukrainian field medics, as well as donation of equipment intended for the caring of the wounded or sick in the field;

c) contributions to the capacity building of Ukraine’s maritime domain, by providing training at sea.

Training offered may change in line with Ukrainian needs and Icelandic capacity.


International support funds for Ukraine


30. Iceland will channel defence-related support to Ukraine through international and multilateral instruments, in line with the needs of Ukraine, as appropriate, including efforts such as:

a) NATO’s Ukraine Comprehensive Assistance Package (UCAP) and the UK-led International Fund for Ukraine;

b) Ukraine Defence Contact Group, including through the Demining Coalition and the IT coalition to support efforts to enhance Ukraine’s capacity and resilience;

c) Other efforts that supplement, add to or replace ongoing support.


Provision of equipment, supplies and transport


31. Iceland stands ready to finance, procure, and deliver defence-related supplies and equipment. Iceland commits to continued support in terms of transportation of military supplies and equipment to Ukraine from NATO allies by chartered cargo planes.


32. To meet the needs of servicewomen of Ukraine, Iceland has provided funding for the purchase of uniforms, bulletproof vests, and medical and hygiene products.  Iceland will continue to support efforts that aim to provide equipment specifically for women in the security and defence forces.


Cyber security and countering disinformation


33. The Participants will cooperate to enable Ukraine to prevent, detect and counter Russian cyber aggression, cyber espionage and hybrid warfare, including through increased cooperation on cyber diplomacy, enhanced cyber resilience as well as providing technical assistance to Ukraine.


34. The Participants recognize that the Russian Federation continues to manipulate information in support of its war against Ukraine. The Participants will enhance their cooperation in the field of countering Russian and any other actor’s disinformation and interference in order to promote the development of its capabilities to counter hybrid threats, malign propaganda and disinformation campaigns affecting national security as well as work for organising joint education and training programmes for experts.


Intelligence and security cooperation


35. The Participants will enhance cooperation in the field of intelligence and security in accordance with applicable legal requirements and possibilities.


36. The Participants will seek to conclude an Agreement on Mutual Protection of Classified Information between their respective countries that will facilitate greater information sharing between various Ukrainian and Icelandic government agencies.


Maritime Security


37. Iceland will contribute to the capacity building of Ukraine’s maritime domain through cooperation with Allies and partners. The development of Ukraine’s maritime fleet will be achieved through capacity building efforts, industrial cooperation and training efforts as well as donations.


38. The Participants will seek to coordinate their efforts on strengthening international cooperation in the domain of maritime security in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and other international legal instruments. Ukraine and Iceland will work on options for Iceland to support Ukraine in the development of Ukraine’s naval capabilities.


ІV. Civilian support


39. Since the beginning of Russia’s full-scale war of aggression, Iceland has provided civilian support for Ukraine’s resilience, reconstruction, and relief of the war-affected population. This Agreement on security commitments acknowledges a continuation of such efforts.


Humanitarian assistance and protection of civilians


40. Iceland will provide humanitarian assistance based on Ukraine’s needs, with the objective to save lives, alleviate suffering, and protect civilians. Support will mainly be provided through key United Nations partners, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and Civil Society Partners.


Economic support to sustain basic services and underpin reconstruction


41. Iceland will provide economic support to help sustain Ukraine’s economy and the provision of basic services to Ukraine’s population. Such support will both be geared towards addressing urgent needs as well as supporting reconstruction and creating the foundation for sustainable development.


42. Iceland’s support will continue to be based on Ukraine’s needs while prioritising areas in which Iceland has experience and knowledge and can provide added value. Special attention will be given to basic needs, the strengthening of social and civil infrastructure, including in the field of education, energy security and energy transition.


43. Iceland will continue to support efforts for the rehabilitation and reconstruction as well as protection of critical infrastructure that will be necessary to secure electricity, heat, water, education, and other services to the Ukrainian people in a way that is both environmentally sustainable and resilient.


44. Iceland remains supportive of Ukraine’s reform agenda and will provide support related to democracy, human rights, and gender equality, including the women, peace, and security agenda. 


45. Iceland will provide its support through key partners such as the World Bank where Iceland has provided funding to the Ukraine Reconstruction Trust Fund (URTF) and the Special Program for Ukraine and Moldova recovery (SPUR) under the International Development Association (IDA) Crisis Facility. Iceland will also continue to work actively within the IMF to ensure macro-financial support and to further international coordination.


46. Iceland’s support will also be implemented in cooperation with other partners, international organisations and through civil society organisations, while opportunities for increased bilateral cooperation will be further developed. Iceland will furthermore work to increase private sector engagement and external trade between Ukraine and Iceland.



V. Commitment to implement reforms


47. Iceland recognises the significant progress Ukraine has made in implementing reforms. Ukraine reiterates its continued commitment to implementing reforms including in the areas of governance, anti-corruption and the defence and security sector. Ukraine commits to continue implementing reforms to support and protect Ukraine’s democracy and rule of law.


48. Iceland will provide technical and financial resources to support Ukraine’s reform path. This involves supporting Ukraine’s reform process on the path towards future membership of EU and NATO.


49. Ukraine commits to further advancing reforms improving governance through strengthening institutional controls, improving resilience, and building a just and inclusive society. Ukraine will actively work to promote public trust in the rule of law and strengthen the independence of the judiciary.


50. Ukraine commits to advancing anti-corruption efforts at all levels of society across the public sector, the private sector and civil society. This includes ensuring sufficient resources for the independent anti-corruption institutions for the benefit of society as a whole.


51. The Participants will cooperate to combat serious and organised crime (SOC).


52. Ukraine commits to advancing and developing democratic control and oversight with its security and defence forces and within the wider security and defence sector by focusing on further improving oversight, accountability, and transparency across its security institutions essential for building their legitimacy, efficiency, and accountability.


VI. Cooperation in the event of a future armed attack


53. In the event of future Russian armed attack against Ukraine, at the request of either Participant, the Participants will consult within 24 hours, bilaterally or via other channels they both deem suitable, in order to determine appropriate next steps.


54. Iceland, in such circumstances, and in accordance with its respective legal and constitutional requirements, will provide swift and sustained security assistance as appropriate and economic assistance, to impose economic and other costs on Russia, including through aligning itself closely with sanctions decided by the EU, and to consult on Ukraine’s needs as it exercises its right of self-defence enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter.


55. In order to ensure the widest and most effective collective response to future armed attacks, the Participants may amend these provisions in order to align with any mechanism that they may subsequently agree with their other international partners, including the participants of the G7 Declaration.


VII. Consultation, coordination, and review


56. In order to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement on security commitments and to ensure an ongoing strategic dialogue, appropriate consultation structures between the Participants will be arranged.


57. The Participants will, if necessary, designate authorised bodies for the development and implementation of bilateral agreements in accordance with the areas of cooperation specified in this Agreement.


58. The security commitments are subject to ongoing review in order to monitor progress on implementation with a special focus on ensuring adherence to accountability and transparency.


VIIІ. Final Provisions


59. This Agreement may be amended and supplemented, including by adding annexes thereto, at any time by the written consent of the Participants.


60. Any disputes between the Participants arising out of the interpretation and/or implementation of this Agreement will be settled amicably through negotiation or consultation between the Participants.


61. This Agreement will come into effect from the date of its signature and is valid for ten years.


62. The Participants can jointly decide to extend this Agreement through notification no later than 6 (six) months prior to the lapse of the ten-year period.


63. At the same time and in accordance with the G7 Declaration, the Participants share the opinion that this Agreement is without prejudice to Ukraine pursuing a pathway toward future membership in the Euro-Atlantic Community.


64. In the event that Ukraine becomes a member of NATO before the expiry of this Agreement, the Participants will decide on its future status.


65. This Agreement may be terminated by either Participant by giving written notice to the other Participant. This Agreement will be terminated 6 (six) months from the date of receipt of such notice. The termination will not affect the implementation of ongoing activities or projects, which have been decided prior to the date of its termination, unless the Participants decide otherwise.


Signed in Stockholm on 31 May 2024, in duplicate, in English and Ukrainian languages, the English version of which shall prevail in the event of any discrepancy.


For Ukraine: Volodymyr Zelenskyy, President

For Iceland: Bjarni Benediktsson, Prime Minister