President of Ukraine

Agreement on Security Co-operation between the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland and Ukraine

12 January 2024 - 16:57


The United Kingdom (’the UK’) and Ukraine (hereafter ‘the Participants’):

determined to end forever Russia’s unprovoked attacks on Ukraine since 2014 and its full-scale invasion in 2022, which have brought great suffering to Ukraine’s people and threatened European and worldwide security;

unwavering in our commitment to Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity within its borders, which have been internationally recognised since 1991, and to ensuring Ukraine’s ability to defend itself, to resist future coercion, to choose its own future, and to prosper;

committed to common values of democracy, the rule of law, good governance, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;

reaffirming the principles of the United Nations Charter, the Helsinki Final Act, and the Charter of Paris, including the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of states, and the inviolability of borders, which are essential for European and worldwide security;

desiring to achieve a just and lasting peace in Ukraine as well as its economic and social recovery;

reaffirming our support for reforms to strengthen Ukraine’s security and economy, which are aimed at realising its European and Euro-Atlantic aspirations, including towards European Union and NATO membership; and

recognising that Ukraine’s defence, recovery, reform and European and Euro-Atlantic ambitions are mutually reinforcing and must go forward together;

have jointly determined to strengthen our security co-operation by pursuing the measures set out in this Agreement.


Part I. Introduction


1. This Agreement is intended to further the Joint Declaration launched by the UK, Ukraine and other members of the G7 in Vilnius on 12 July 2023 and subsequently joined by a further 24 states. It builds on the Political, Free Trade & Strategic Partnership Agreement of 8 October 2020, which remains the foundation of UK-Ukraine collaboration. The Participants will continue to explore ways to further strengthen their long-term relationship including working towards a hundred-year partnership.

2. With this Agreement, the UK and Ukraine have decided to deepen their cooperation and partnership, which is based on their common interests in the defence of international law and order, peace, and the protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms.

3. The UK believes that Ukraine’s future membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) would make an effective contribution to peace and stability in Europe.  The Participants decided on coordinating and strengthening joint efforts to support Ukraine's accession to NATO. The main components of the security commitments provided to Ukraine by the UK in this Agreement are:

  • provision of comprehensive assistance to Ukraine for the protection and the restoration of its territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders, including the territorial sea and free economic (maritime) zone, reconstruction of its national economy, and the protection of its citizens;

  • prevention and active deterrence of, and counter-measures against, any military escalation and/or a new aggression by the Russian Federation; and

  • support for Ukraine's future integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions, including by supporting Ukraine’s reform plans and interoperability with NATO.


Part II. Defence and Security

Defence and Military Cooperation

1. Since Russia’s full-scale invasion in 2022, the UK has been one of the largest suppliers of military aid to Ukraine, has been training the Ukrainian Armed Forces and security forces through Operation Orbital, and was the first European country to provide lethal aid. The UK will continue to support Ukraine for as long as it needs, so that Ukraine can effectively defend itself. 

2. The Participants recall the inherent right of states to individual and collective self-defence, and the unlawfulness of all attempts to redraw borders by force. They reaffirm that Ukraine’s security is integral to Euro-Atlantic and global security. Ukraine’s Armed Forces and security forces are defending not only state sovereignty, independence and their territory but also the UN Charter, our shared values and fundamental principles of international law.

3. The UK is a leading defence and security partner for Ukraine.  The aims of UK-Ukraine defence co-operation are to support an independent, democratic, and sovereign Ukraine, within its internationally recognised borders, capable of deterring and defending against future attacks, as well as to deepen Ukraine’s interoperability with NATO, and to accelerate Ukraine’s transition to NATO equipment and standards.

4. The Participants will work together, and with other partners of Ukraine, to ensure Ukrainian Armed Forces and security forces are able to fully restore Ukraine’s territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders, as well as to increase Ukraine’s resilience so that it is sufficient to deter and defend against future attacks and coercion. This will include, but is not limited to, working together so that Ukraine’s military and non-military security institutions are able to perform effectively to European and Euro-Atlantic standards and are fully accountable to the Ukrainian people, Parliament and Government.

5. Through this Agreement: 

  • the Participants will work together on ensuring a sustainable force capable of defending Ukraine now and deterring Russian aggression in the future, through the continued provision of security assistance and modern military equipment, across the land, air and sea, space and cyber domains – prioritising air defence, artillery and long-range firepower, armoured vehicles, and other key capabilities as required, such as combat air, and by promoting increased interoperability with Euro-Atlantic partners;

  • the UK will provide long-term advice and support for defence governance and policies in order to strengthen Ukraine’s Ministry of Defence;

  • the UK will, alongside other international partners, help Ukraine to enhance its deterrence to external aggressors by developing modern Armed Forces that are increasingly interoperable with NATO and contribute to the NATO force pool. This includes development of a modern defence sector in Ukraine, and a pathway to a future in NATO through:

    • support to capabilities and training, as well as the infrastructure needed for Ukraine to exercise domestic control of their own airspace;

    • support to Ukraine’s development of a Navy and the Sea Guard of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine that can execute mine clearance, and conduct maritime ISR, patrols, coastal defence and freedom of navigation, helping Ukraine to rebuild their economy;

    • support to the development of the Armed Forces of Ukraine including (but not limited to): future force design, a move towards NATO concepts and operating procedures, command and staff training, combined exercises, and enhanced compatibility and interoperability with NATO Allies;

    • support for border protection and defence, its engineering and fortification, surveillance, monitoring of enemy troop movements, post-war reconstruction of border infrastructure, demining, and disposal of explosive ordnance; and

    • support to medical training and prosthetics.

  • the UK will support plans and governance structures for Capability Coalitions, both to deliver the future force, and also to bring more coherence to the provision of capability in the current war. The UK is working with the US to develop the governance framework for the Capability Coalitions. All the Capability Coalitions will improve the interoperability of Ukrainian and NATO forces. 

  • the UK will make significant contributions to the Capability Coalitions including Maritime Security, Air, Air Defence, Artillery and Armour, as well as providing other weapons systems and ammunition agreed by the Participants. 

6. In 2022, the UK provided Ukraine with £2.3bn in military aid.  In 2023, the UK provided a further £2.3bn in military aid.  In 2024, the UK will provide a further £2.5bn of support. 

7. The Participants will seek to ensure that Ukraine's military capabilities are at such a level that, in the event of external military aggression against the United Kingdom, Ukraine is able to provide effective military assistance. The terms, format and scope of such assistance will be determined by the Participants.

8. The UK will continue its support to Ukraine for the ten-year duration of this Agreement.


Maritime Security

1. The UK will jointly lead the Maritime Security Capability Coalition and will make significant contribution to Ukraine’s maritime fleet development. The Maritime Capability Coalition aims to support Ukraine to become a net contributor to maritime security across the Black Sea and Azov Sea out to 2035 and beyond. This will help Ukraine deter and repel threats, restore economic activity and move Ukraine towards interoperability with NATO in the maritime sphere.


Defence Industry Cooperation

1. The UK will work with its defence industry and Ukraine to contribute to the development of Ukraine’s defence industrial base, and identify opportunities for closer defence industrial partnerships and collaboration including for mutual commercial benefit and co-ordination.  The UK will work with Ukraine to identify the most impactful investment areas, strengthen efforts to reduce existing barriers for cooperation, encourage and support its defence industry to invest, including by supporting the localisation of production in Ukraine as well as exploring opportunities for joint production. 

2. The UK will work with Ukraine to mitigate existing supply chain bottlenecks impeding the development of capacity and capability of both the UK and Ukraine for manufacturing of priority weapons and ammunition. 

3. The UK will encourage its defence industry to work with Ukraine to support localising repair and maintenance and manufacturing of UK defence products in Ukraine. The UK will work with Ukraine to strengthen protection of the transferred technologies and intellectual property rights. At the same time, Ukraine guarantees the protection of these technologies and intellectual property.

4. The UK and Ukraine will promote information exchange on their respective defence related research and development efforts, in order to implement joint projects and programmes to develop new defence solutions.

5. The UK and Ukraine will work to transform Ukraine’s defence industry into a powerful asset for Ukraine and Euro-Atlantic security, enabling Ukraine to restore its territorial integrity, acting as a major driver in economic recovery and contributing to effective deterrence of future aggression.


Part III. Non-Military Security

Protection of critical infrastructure

1. The UK will contribute to the development of Ukraine's critical infrastructure protection capabilities.

2. The UK will continue to engage Ukrainian specialists with experience in critical infrastructure security to implement relevant projects on its territory.

3. The UK and Ukraine will explore joint educational and training programmes for critical infrastructure protection specialists.

4. The UK will work with Ukraine to identify sources of funding to develop the protection and resilience of critical infrastructure in various sectors.


Cooperation in the sphere of security and cyber security

1. The Participants will work together on intelligence and security co-operation to enable Ukraine to detect, deter and disrupt Russian conventional aggression, espionage and hybrid warfare, including through greater cyber resilience, with cyber advice and industry support to secure IT infrastructure from cyber-attack, while supporting the modernisation and reform of Ukraine’s security and intelligence architecture, including on cyber and information security issues. This will be achieved through intelligence sharing and co-operation.

2. The Participants recognise the need to detect, disrupt and deter malign cyber operations and in particular malicious use of cyber capabilities by the Russian Federation and other hostile state and non-state actors. The Participants will work together to identify and deter the irresponsible use of cyber capabilities by the Russian Federation against the Participants. 

3. The Participants will contribute to the development of Ukraine's capabilities to defend against, deter and respond to threats to critical infrastructure by facilitating the availability of modern technological solutions in the field of critical infrastructure protection for its cybersecurity actors, including through the provision of international technical assistance to Ukraine.

4. The Participants will work on the implementation of a joint protocol for deterring and responding to cyberattacks by the Russian Federation, its satellites and pro-Russian hacker groups, including pursuing shared deterrence objectives and the creation of a mechanism for the prompt provision of expert services in the field of cybersecurity.


Information security, combating information manipulation and propaganda

1. The Participants recognise that the Russian Federation continues to manipulate information in support of its war on Ukraine and will seek to continue to mutually support each other’s efforts to tell the truth well. To counter Russian information manipulation and propaganda globally, the UK and Ukraine will:

  • collaborate to improve Ukraine's capabilities to counter information security threats, primarily Russian propaganda;

  • work together with like-minded partners to communicate effectively at an international level, offering the world a truthful alternative to the Russian Federation’s disinformation campaigns;

  • co-ordinate on closer collaboration of communications output to counter disinformation; and

  • promote the development of joint educational and training programmes for information security professionals, including improving the level of English language proficiency in this area, regular exchange of experience and professional events involving information security professionals.


Cooperation in the sphere of combating serious and organised crime

1. The Participants recognise that the Russian Federation and its proxies use serious and organised crime (SOC), particularly Illicit Finance (IF), to finance actions aimed at undermining Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as its internal stability. 

2. The participants will take actions to counteract the activities of SOC, in particular individuals and groups that are trying to infiltrate across Ukrainian society, have criminal influence in certain regions, including the temporarily occupied ones, and are actively used as a tool of "hybrid warfare" to counteract the processes of recovery and reconciliation in Ukraine.

3. In order to counter the activities of SOC, the Participants will take measures to:

  • conduct joint operations to detect and suppress SOC; 

  • analyse the criminal situation in the countries and identify the main risks from SOC; 

  • identify assets that may be seized in criminal proceedings or in a case of recognising assets as unjustified; 

  • create joint working groups and joint investigation teams of prosecutors and other parties; and

  • facilitate the provision of training and sharing of best practice.

4. The above measures are not exhaustive, and the Participants may pursue other forms of cooperation to achieve their goals in combating SOC.


Part IV. Political Co-operation

Just peace

1.The Participants recognise that neither Ukraine nor Europe will be secure until Ukraine’s territorial integrity is fully restored and there is a just peace that respects Ukraine’s rights under international law and the UN Charter. Ukraine and the UK will therefore work together for a just and lasting peace that has broad global support.

2. The UK welcomes Ukraine’s efforts to create a just and sustainable peace, also based on the principles of Ukraine’s Peace Formula. The UK is ready to play a leading role in taking forward steps to implement peace initiatives that reflect the principles of the UN Charter. 



1. The Participants recognise the value of sanctions in restricting the Russian Federation’s access to the finance, goods, technology and services it is utilising in its aggression, in bearing down on Russia's revenue streams, and to deter future attacks.  Since the invasion started, the UK has delivered its most extensive sanctions package ever imposed against a major economy.

2. While the Russian Federation’s aggression towards Ukraine continues, the UK will remain committed to pursuing robust sanctions against sectors of the Russian economy and those in the Russian Federation and outside who are supporting or profiting from the war, or assisting in sanctions circumvention in third countries. The UK will also take determined action with partners to tackle all forms of sanctions circumvention as well as reinforcing its own domestic resilience against Russian-linked illicit finance and Kremlin-linked elites. The UK and Ukraine will provide each other up-to-date information on the grounds for sanctions and other relevant information, in compliance with relevant obligations.



1. The Participants reaffirm their commitment to holding the Russian Federation accountable for causing losses or damage to individuals and entities, as well as to the state of Ukraine, as a result of its internationally unlawful acts in Ukraine or against Ukraine, including its aggression in violation of the Charter of the United Nations. They reaffirm that the Russian Federation must bear the legal responsibility, including making reparation for any damage, caused by such act, which will also help deter future attacks and support Ukraine’s recovery. They will seek to hold to account those responsible for war crimes and other international crimes committed in or against Ukraine, consistent with international law, including by supporting the work of the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine and the International Criminal Court to ensure allegations of war crimes are fully and fairly investigated by independent, effective and robust legal mechanisms. 


Part V. Fiscal Support, Recovery and Reconstruction

Fiscal support

1. The UK has been at the forefront of efforts to support Ukraine’s immediate recovery, fiscal and humanitarian needs. Since the full-scale invasion, the UK has to date committed to provide approximately £4.2bn in fiscal support, and more than £640m in bilateral humanitarian, stabilisation, recovery and reform assistance to meet Ukraine’s immediate needs. The Participants co-hosted the Ukraine Recovery Conference (URC) in London in June 2023 where the UK reaffirmed our commitment to Ukraine’s early recovery and longer-term reconstruction. The URC sent a clear message that the UK not only stands with Ukraine to win the war and defeat the Russian Federation’s aggression, but that the UK will also stand with Ukraine to win the peace.


Ukraine’s recovery and reconstruction

1. The UK is steadfast in its commitment to support Ukraine’s recovery and reconstruction. The UK will support Ukraine to build increased institutional, economic and social resilience, with a focus on reforms that will underpin these areas. The UK will support early recovery activities in priority sectors, where the UK has expertise and a unique offer, including energy, infrastructure, tech and demining. 

2. The Participants recognise that lasting security and prosperity for Ukraine must be underpinned by a strong private sector-led economy. The UK will seek to build a modern, resilient and sustainable Ukrainian economy that is integrated into global markets, is not susceptible to hostile Russian influence, and is based on strong and accountable institutions, respect for the rule of law.

3. The Participants recognise the need to unite efforts aimed at protecting the population and territories of Ukraine from the negative consequences caused by mines and explosive remnants of war as a result of the Russian Federation’s armed aggression and alleviating the devastating consequences after its completion.

4. The Participants will promote the further development of partnership in the field of humanitarian demining, the accumulation, analysis, exchange and application of practical experience in the field of humanitarian demining.

5. The UK will continue to fund demining, risk education, and capacity building (working in partnership with a national operator) through its Global Mine Action Programme. The UK will support the State Emergency Services of Ukraine through the Partnership Fund for a Resilient Ukraine to develop and sustain international demining standards in its operations.

6. The UK also undertakes to work with other donors to improve coordination and identify and implement innovative finance vehicles that bring new sources of funding into the mine action sector. The UK will work closely within the mechanisms set up by the Ukrainian government to support the implementation of the forthcoming mine action strategy.


Macro-economic stability

1. The Participants recognise the importance of macro-economic stability. The UK stands behind Ukraine’s IMF programme goals of sustaining economic and financial stability, restoring debt sustainability and promoting reforms that support Ukraine’s recovery. Ukraine is committed to implementing the full set of policy requirements as set out in the IMF programme, including in meeting these through the quarterly review monitoring processes during the lifetime of the programme to 2027.


Access to financial sector, insurance industry, technology sector and other expertise

1. The UK will seek to facilitate access for Ukraine to the UK’s private finance companies and institutions, insurance industry, technology sector and other expertise. To that end, the Participants will: 

  • continue implementation of the UK-Ukraine Political, Free Trade & Strategic Partnership Agreement; 

  • develop measures to increase investor confidence, and work with commercial insurance markets to unlock private investment to meet Ukraine’s long-term reconstruction needs;

  • use the newly agreed UK-Ukraine Digital Trade Agreement, signed on 20 March 2023, to modernise bilateral trade in the digital era and deepen our economic ties;

  • support skills-sharing and corporate twinning initiatives that strengthen UK-Ukraine business partnerships and promote investment opportunities in Ukraine in key sectors that can drive economic recovery; and

  • support opportunities for investment and UK-Ukraine partnerships in the tech sector, to drive a more modern, innovative economic future for Ukraine and drive excellence in e-governance.


Compensation for losses, injuries and damages caused by Russian aggression

1. The Participants reaffirm that the Russian Federation must pay for the long-term reconstruction of Ukraine. Russian sovereign assets in the UK’s jurisdiction will remain immobilised until the Russian Federation has paid for the damage it has caused to Ukraine.  The UK, working with its partners, will continue to pursue all lawful routes through which Russian assets can be used to support Ukraine. 

2. As a priority, the Participants will continue to work together with others, including G7 states, to explore options for the development of appropriate mechanisms to provide reparation for damage, loss, or injury  caused by Russian aggression, as envisaged by the Statute of the Register of Damage Caused by the Aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine adopted by the Resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe CM/Res(2023)3. In this regard, the Participants will explore appropriate options for establishing a compensation mechanism to provide compensation to victims of Russian aggression.


Part VI. Humanitarian Co-operation

Humanitarian aid, civil defence and resilience 

1. The Participants reaffirm that, as Ukraine begins early recovery and reconstruction, they will ensure the continuation of well-coordinated life-saving humanitarian aid where it is needed. The Participants will work together to ensure a better prioritised, targeted humanitarian response which delivers to those most in need, including in hard-to-reach areas. 

2. The UK will continue to support stabilisation and civil defence needs through the Partnership Fund for a Resilient Ukraine (PFRU) where there is a strategic fit.  Past support has included, for example, support to the State Emergency Services of Ukraine in multiple critical areas that bolster their emergency response and improve civil defence, and support to regional and local administrations in the provision of shelters, particularly in schools. 


Operational delivery of humanitarian services

1. Where possible, the Participants will progressively shift the response to a nationally-led one that sees humanitarian support transitioning to Ukrainian systems of service provision over time and puts more leadership, capacity and funding in the hands of Ukrainian organisations to drive operational delivery of humanitarian services. The Participants will also continue to play an active role through our support for refugees from Ukraine. 


Social recovery and territorial reintegration

1. The UK will support Ukraine to plan for the reintegration of currently occupied territories, to contribute to the vital stabilisation and socio-economic renewal, particularly in liberated and frontline areas, and areas bordering Russia, to promote an inclusive social recovery, and to meet the needs of the most vulnerable, including through work to support women, social protection systems and veterans.


Part VII. Reform

Inclusive reform

1. The Participants reaffirm that inclusive reform is indispensable for Ukraine’s current and future security and prosperity, for its democracy, the resilience of its institutions and for Ukraine’s European and Euro-Atlantic aspirations, including towards EU and NATO membership. The legacy effect created by the war, such as the liberation of occupied territory, the transition from martial law, and the need to meet public expectations, will require Ukraine’s institutions to be well adapted to manage such challenges.  


Priority reform areas

1. The Participants reiterate their commitment to streamline reform efforts against the priority reform areas set for accessions to EU and NATO and IMF benchmarks, as well as aligning with other major donors, in particular the International Financial Institutions, European Union and G7 partners.


Commitment to implement reforms

1. The UK recognises the significant progress Ukraine has made in implementing reforms. Ukraine reiterates its continued commitment to reforms, including in the areas of: 

  • governance - Ukraine will commit to continuing institutional governance reform in the interest of building a resilient and inclusive democracy, including the continued reform of its judiciary with strengthened judicial appointment procedures to build public trust in the rule of law;

  • anti-corruption - acknowledging that this transcends all areas of reform, Ukraine commits to continuing to build its capability and capacity to prevent and tackle corruption across the public and private sectors, and civil society, including through establishing and supporting independent and well-resourced anti-corruption institutions that are able to operate with appropriate accountability but without political interference;

  • defence and security sector - advancing security and defence sector reforms (including defence, intelligence and civilian security institutions) and modernisation including by strengthening democratic civilian control and improving efficiency and transparency across Ukraine’s security institutions and defence-related industries, including through activities to support:

    • democratic civilian control of the Armed Forces, a prerequisite of NATO membership and an important indicator of the non-politicisation of the Armed Forces;

    • good governance within the defence and security sector, including evidence-based decision making, delegated management authority, clear directive structures, and improved recruitment, human resources and retention processes, and the corporatisation and good management of the state-owned defence industrial sector, to meet Ukraine’s OECD obligations;

    • improved defence and security procurement processes (for both lethal and non-lethal equipment) ensuring that, wherever possible, the default process is transparent, and all relevant processes are followed to enable audit and evaluation activity; and

    • increased alignment with Euro-Atlantic values and standards, including through the development and standardisation of International Humanitarian Law, and support for relevant Ministries in implementing their obligations towards marginalised groups.

  • economic and business environment - modernising the economy by progressing reforms that will attract private finance, boost investor confidence, tackle corruption and create a fair and level playing field for all parties, including through a reform of state-owned enterprises (SOEs).  


Support in delivering reform agenda

1. The UK will support Ukraine in delivering its reform agenda, sharing the UK’s strength in harnessing and coordinating public-private partnerships, enabling financial and capital markets, and our specific expertise in anti-corruption, security and defence sector reform, judicial reform and support for inclusive and democratic institutions.


Part VIII. Cooperation in the event of future armed attack

1. Any future Russian invasion would violate the UN Charter and fundamental principles of international law, and would grievously undermine Euro-Atlantic security, including that of the UK.  

2. In the event of future Russian armed attack against Ukraine, at the request of either of the Participants, the Participants will consult within 24 hours to determine measures needed to counter or deter the aggression.

3. The UK undertakes that, in those circumstances, and acting in accordance with its legal and constitutional requirements, it would: provide Ukraine with swift and sustained security assistance, modern military equipment across all domains as necessary, and economic assistance; impose economic and other costs on Russia; and consult with Ukraine on its needs as it exercises its right to self-defence enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter. 

4. In order to ensure the widest and most effective collective response to any future armed attack, the UK and Ukraine may amend these provisions in order to align with any mechanism that Ukraine may subsequently agree with its other international partners, including the participants in the Joint Declaration of 12 July 2023.  


Part IX. Final Provisions

Executive and technical agreements

1. The Participants will, if necessary, designate authorised bodies for the development and implementation of bilateral agreements in accordance with the areas of cooperation specified in this Agreement.

2. The authorised bodies of the Participants can conclude executive and technical agreements on specific areas of cooperation within the framework of the implementation of this Agreement.


Timeframe of the Agreement 

1. This Agreement is valid for ten years from the date of its signature. 

2. At the same time, in accordance with the G7 Joint Declaration of 12 July 2023, the Participants intend this Agreement to remain in force as Ukraine pursues its path to future membership in the Euro-Atlantic community.

3. In the event that Ukraine becomes a member of NATO before the expiry of this Agreement, the participants will decide on its future status.



1. This Agreement may be terminated by either Participant by giving written notice to the other. The Agreement will be terminated six months from the date of receipt of such notice.



1. This Agreement may be amended and supplemented by mutual agreement of the Participants, which will be made in writing.


Entry into effect

1. The provisions of this Agreement will come into effect immediately upon signature.


Signed in Kyiv on 12 January 2024 in duplicate in the English and Ukrainian languages, the English version of which is valid in the event of any discrepancy. 


For Ukraine:                                              President Volodymyr Zelenskyy

For the United Kingdom:                         Prime Minister Rishi Sunak